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^: *http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1445-6664 /issues (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1445-6664/ issues)
^: Mohassel M.H.R.; Aliverdi A.; Hamami H.; Zand E.
^: Optimizing the performance of diclofop-methyl, cycloxydim, and clodinafop-propargyl on littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor) and wild oat (Avena ludoviciana) control with adjuvants [ -, - ]
^: Weed Biology & Management, 2010; Vol.10,N 1. - P. 57-63
^: 2010
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^: . -, - (Phalaris minor) (Avena ludoviciana); - . : - - 0, 112, 225, 450, 675 900 ../; - 0, 15, 30, 60, 90 120 ../; - - 0, 8, 16, 32, 48 64 ../. (, , - 0,2% ./.) , . , . , - , . , , - , , -, . ( ..).

aref2 Optimizing the herbicide dose by the addition of adjuvants is an acceptable way to reduce the risk of side-effects from herbicides. Therefore, to detect a suitable adjuvant for diclofop-methyl, cycloxydim, and clodinafop-propargyl against littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor) and wild oat (Avena ludoviciana), six dose-response experiments were conducted. The treatments consisted of diclofop-methyl at 0, 112, 225, 450, 675, and 900 g ai ha−1, cycloxydim at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 g ai ha−1, and clodinafop-propargyl at 0, 8, 16, 32, 48, and 64 g ai ha−1 with and without the adjuvants of Frigate, olive oil, and castor oil at 0.2% (v/v) in order to control both littleseed canarygrass and wild oat. Tested herbicides performance was enhanced by all adjuvants against littleseed canarygrass and wild oat. The addition of Frigate and the vegetable oils had the lowest and the highest effect on the performance of all of the herbicides on both littleseed canarygrass and wild oat, respectively, which confirms the solubilizing nature of the cuticular waxes by vegetable oils. A comparison between the two vegetable oils revealed that olive oil exerted a greater control of littleseed canarygrass than did the castor oil. In contrast, castor oil exerted a greater control of wild oat than did the olive oil, which can be related to differences in the leaf surface micromorphology of the weeds.

^TRN: 1090087
^:
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