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^: *http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa
^: Bo Liu; Fanhua Zhang ; Yuejin Wang
^: Toxicity of Phosphine to Carposina niponensis (Lepidoptera: Carposinadae) at Low Temperature [ (Carposina niponensis) (0° C). ]
^: Journal of Economic Entomology, 2010; Vol.103,N 6. - P. 1988-1993
^: 2010
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^: Carposina niponensis Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinadae), is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China and presents a problem in some export markets because it is considered a quarantine pest by some countries. Methyl bromide is the only fumigant used for fumigation of apples (Malus spp.) for export. However, phosphine is a candidate replacement that can be applied directly at low temperature. Here, laboratory tests showed that tolerance of different stages of C. niponensis to phosphine fumigation at 0C differed greatly; first‐second-instar larvae were the least tolerant stage and the mature fifth instars were the most tolerant stage. In the mature larvae, fumigation tests, with a range of phosphine concentrations from 0.42 to 1.95 mg/liters and exposure periods of 24 h to 14 d at 0C indicated narcosis when phosphine concentration was ≥1.67 mg/liter and that a 15.52‐8.14-d fumigation period was required to achieve 99% mortality with different phosphine concentrations. The expression of C0.7T = k was obtained, which indicated that exposure time was much more important than concentration of phosphine in mortality of mature larvae of C. niponensis. All results suggested that phosphine fumigation at low temperature offers promising control of C. niponensis infestation in pome fruit. aref1

^TRN: 1368781
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