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^ШХР: *http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1445-6664 /issues (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1445-6664/ issues)
^АВТ: Hiroaki Watanabe
^ЗГЛ: Development of lowland weed management and weed succession in Japan [Особенности борьбы с сорняками на плантациях затопляемого риса и смена их сообществ в условиях современных систем земледелия и применения гербицидов в Японии. (Обзор)]
^ВЫХ: Weed Biology & Management, 2011; Vol.11,N 4. - P. 175-189
^ДАТ: 2011
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^РЕФ: Since the introduction of rice production in Japan, lowland areas have been managed for rice production with the purpose of better rice growth, as well as lesser weed infestation. Rice is cropped every year in lowland fields by repeated cultivation of a single crop, with high yields and without soil sickness usually being observed in upland fields. This is probably because the irrigation water supplies various nutrients for healthy rice growth and the drainage washes out and removes harmful factors. However, until recently, the wet or flooded conditions of lowland fields in the Asian monsoon region never have allowed humans to cultivate useful summer crops, except rice or some aquatic plants. Therefore, the management of lowland areas in the Asian monsoon region has been significantly different from European field management, where crop rotation has been the traditional standard practice. Paddy weeds are aquatic plants or hygrophytes that have adapted to lowland fields. Traditionally, tillage and puddling were practiced seasonally in lowland fields on a regular schedule every year. Rice cultivation technology was developed and supported by regional irrigation systems that created stable environments for typical paddy weeds to complete their life cycle. After the introduction of chemical weed control, rice fields became very severe habitats for these paddy weeds, where they could not grow and reproduce without strategies for survival under herbicide exposure. Even so, many of the traditional paddy weeds survived because of their accumulated or uneradicated seed banks, although several aquatic plants were listed as endangered or threatened species. The important weed species changed, sometimes rapidly and sometimes slowly, depending both on their reproductive system and their biological response towards field management and weed control systems. Very recently, the level of perennial weeds, herbicide-resistant weeds, and weedy rice has increased in paddy fields that are highly dependent on herbicide use. In addition, several hygrophyte species have invaded paddy fields. In order to address these issues, the improvement and application of integrated weed management methods are expected to be critical. aref1

^TRN: 1375531
^ВИД: Статья из книги
^ЯЗК: Английский
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