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^: *http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa
^: Zhao Xueping; Wu Changxing; Wang Yanhua; Cang Tao ; Chen Liping; Yu Ruixian; Wang Qiang
^: Assessment of Toxicity Risk of Insecticides Used in Rice Ecosystem on Trichogramma japonicum, an Egg Parasitoid of Rice Lepidopterans [ , - Lepidoptera , Trichogramma japonicum]
^: Journal of Economic Entomology, 2012; Vol.105,N 1. - P. 92-101
^: 2012
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^: ( ) 30 ( 7 ), , - Trichogramma japonicum. , (, , , , ) (, , , , ) T. japonicum (50 0,035 (0,029-0,044) 0,49 (0,34-0,87) ../). (, -, ), (-, , ), (, , , -) (, , , , , ). T. japonicum , , , (50 3383 (2406-5499) 30206 (23107-41008) ../). , , , , ( ) ( ) T. japonicum, - -, . ( ..).

aref2 Both chemical and biological methods are essential for control of insects, for example, lepidopterans, on rice. Thus, it is important to know the effect of chemicals on the biological control agents. In this study, we assessed the toxicity of commonly used insecticides on a biological control agent, Trichogramma japonicum Ahmead (an egg parasitoid of rice lepidopterans) by using a dry film residue method. Results showed that thirty insecticides from seven chemical classes exhibited various degree of toxicity to this parasitoid. Among the seven classes of chemicals tested, organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, phoxim, profenofos, and triazophos) and carbamates (carbaryl, carbsulfan, isoprocarb, metolcarb, and promecarb) exhibited the highest intrinsic toxicity to T. japponicum, with an LC50 of 0.035 (0.029‐0.044) to 0.49 (0.34‐0.87) mg active ingredient (a.i.) L−1, followed by antibiotics (abamectin, emamectin benzoate, and ivermectin), phenylpyrazoles (butane-fipronil, ethiprole, and fipronil), pyrethroids (cyhalthrin, cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, and lambda-cyhaothrin), and neonicotinoids (acetamiprid, imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam). Moreover, the insect growth regulator insecticides (chlorfluazuron, fufenozide, hexaflumuron and tebufenozide) exhibited the lowest toxicity to the wasps with an LC50 of 3,383 (2406‐5499) to 30206 (23107‐41008) mg a.i. L−1. Risk quotient analysis showed that phenylpyrazoles, pyrethroids, insect growth regulators, neonicotinoids (with the exception of thiamethoxam), and antibiotics (with the exception of abamectin) are classified as safe agents to the parasitoid, while organophosphates and carbamates are classified as slightly, moderately, or highly toxic agents to the parasitoid. The data presented in this paper provided useful information on the selection of compatible insecticides with T. japonicum.

^TRN: 1404273
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