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^: *http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa
^: Konopka J.K.; Scott I.M.; McNeil J.N.
^: Costs of Insecticide Resistance in Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) [ (Cydia pomonella) ]
^: Journal of Economic Entomology, 2012; Vol.105,N 3. - P. 872-877
^: 2012
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^: The obvious benefits associated with insecticide resistance for pest species may come at a cost to other life-history traits. In this study, we compared the larval and pupal developmental times, pupal mass wing surface area and wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in insecticide resistant and control strains of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), collected from apple (Malus spp.) orchards in central Canada. Resistant strains had significantly longer larval developmental times and lower pupal masses compared with the susceptible strain. Although the forewings of resistant moths were smaller in resistant than control strain, no difference in wing FA was detected. Longer developmental times could increase exposure time to natural enemies, and reduced adult size could affect longevity and total reproductive output. aref1

^TRN: 1421347
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