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^: *http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa
^: Rimoldi F.; Schneider M.I.; Ronco A.E.
^: Short and Long-Term Effects of Endosulfan, Cypermethrin, Spinosad, and Methoxyfenozide on Adults of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) [ , , Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). ]
^: Journal of Economic Entomology, 2012; Vol.105,N 6. - P. 1982-1987
^: 2012
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^: . Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) .-. . 2 ( ) 2 ( ), , C. externa . , , , , , . , C. externa, . , , . . , , - . . . : , , - 1- (); - 2- ( ). , , . ( ..).

aref2 The susceptibility assessment of natural enemies to pesticides is relevant before the use of selective pesticides and biological control agents within the framework of integrated pest management programs. Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is a predator considered a potential biocontrol agent of agricultural pests in the Neothropical Region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short and long-term effects of two broad spectrum insecticides (cypermethrin and endosulfan) and two biorational (spinosad and methoxyfenozide) registered in Argentina on young C. externa adults under laboratory conditions by ingestion through drinking water. The assessed end-points were: survivorship during preoviposition period, preoviposition time, fecundity and fertility of females, and survivorship of the progeny. Total survivorship of adults was adversely affected only by cypermethrin that reduced the survivorship of adults irrespective of sex. Although endosulfan did not induce significant total mortality, it reduced the survivorship of females. All tested insecticides delayed the reproductive maturity of adults. Cypermethrin, endosulfan, and spinosad reduced the fecundity of females. Fertility was affected only by spinosad. Methoxyfenozide was the insecticide inducing the lowest effects on reproductive parameters. No effects were observed on the survival of progeny with any of the tested compounds. In accordance with the International Organization for Biological Control and Noxious Animals and Plants guidelines the insecticides were classified according to its lethal effects in the following toxicity classes: methoxyfenozide, spinosad, and endosulfan, class 1 (innocuous); cypermethrin, class 2 (moderately toxic). However, if sublethal effects are taken into account, spinosad and endosulfan should not be considered innocuous.

^TRN: 1441433
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