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^: *http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/by/year
^: Silva M.A.; Bezerra-Silva G.C.D. ; Vendramim J.D.; Mastrangelo T.; Forim M.R.
^: Neem Derivatives Are Not Effective as Toxic Bait for Tephritid Fruit Flies [ , -. ()]
^: Journal of Economic Entomology, 2013; Vol.106,N 4. - P. 1772-1779
^: 2013
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^: (Azadirachta indica) . , -, . Anastrepha fraterculus Ceratitis capitata ( ). 50 A. fraterculus C. capitata . 7522 -1 (18,40 -1 ) 1368 -1 (3,35 -1 ) 10 . . 3 , 2 6 . A. fraterculus C. capitata , , . 10- . , , , A. fraterculus C. capitata. . ( ..).

aref2 Neem derivatives have been widely touted as replacements for pesticides. A feasible replacement of synthetic insecticides in the management of fruit flies could be to use neem products in baits. This study evaluated the bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) derivatives in bait for adults of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The estimated LCs50 values for A. fraterculus and C. capitata were 7,522 ppm (18.40 ppm of azadirachtin) and 1,368 ppm (3.35 ppm of azadirachtin), respectively, using an aqueous extract of neem seeds in bait after 10 d of experimentation. No significant differences in the mortality of A. fraterculus and C. capitata adults exposed to baits made from different extracts and neem oil were observed after 3 h or 2 or 6 d; differences among the treatments were observed only on the 10th day of the evaluation. We conclude that neem derivatives applied as a bait spray over citrus plants did not demonstrate a toxic effect on A. fraterculus and C. capitata. The reasons for the low efficacy of the neem bait on Tephritid fruit flies are discussed.

^TRN: 1469665
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