-
()
-


@Mail.ru .
[ ]

^: *http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1570-7458 /issues ( 2010 . EBSCO) (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1570-7458/ issues ( 2010 . EBSCO))
^: Mackauer M.; Chow F.J.
^: Facultative gregarious development in a solitary koinobiont parasitoid, Ephedrus californicus: implications of larval ecology and host constraints [ Ephedrus californicus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) -. ()]
^: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 2012; Vol.142,N 3. - P. 203-210
^: 2012
^: :http://search.epnet.com.- Bibliogr.:p.209-210
+

^: In solitary parasitoids, the mandibulate first instars behave aggressively towards potential competitors so that generally only one larva survives per host. A failure of competition' may result in facultative gregarious development, however. We used Ephedrus californicus Baker (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), a solitary koinobiont parasitoid of aphids, to test two hypotheses in the laboratory that could explain facultative gregarious development. Gregarious development increased with the intensity of parasitism, with two (rarely three) parasitoids successfully developing in a single aphid. In heavily superparasitized hosts, interference between surviving larvae often caused abnormal pupation behaviour and inability to emerge from the mummy. The hypothesis that the survival of more than one larva per host is dependent on differences in larval age was not supported. The total body size in terms of dry mass of two males or two females developing together in the same host was higher than that of same-sex counterparts developing singly. Females were larger than males with which they shared a host. Hypotheses about the evolutionary transition from a solitary to a gregarious lifestyle in parasitoid Hymenoptera have focused on lethal fighting between first instars but have ignored other constraints including immature mortality during later development and limiting host resources. Especially in species that pupate inside the dead host, specific requirements for pupation and emergence may determine whether one or several offspring per host can develop to adult. aref1

^TRN: 1569442
^:
^:
+



        

1998-2021 ©