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^: *http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/by/year
^: Preto C.R.; Bahder B.W.; Bick E.N.; Sudarshana M.R.; Zalom F.G.
^: Seasonal Dynamics of Spissistilus festinus (Hemiptera: Membracidae) in a Californian Vineyard [ Spissistilus festinus (Hemiptera: Membracidae), , , . , ]
^: Journal of Economic Entomology, 2019; Vol.112,N 3. - P. 1138-1144
^: 2019
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^: The three-cornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus (Say) was shown to transmit Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) in a greenhouse study. GRBV is the causal agent of Grapevine Red Blotch Disease, which reduces the quality of wine produced from infected grapes. Due to the general lack of prior concern regarding S. festinus on grapevines, the biology of this species in vineyards has been largely unknown. A 2-yr study with weekly sampling was conducted in a Californian vineyard to increase the knowledge of S. festinus seasonal dynamics and distribution. The overwintering S. festinus adults were first captured in the vineyard before bud break. Detection of late-instar S. festinus nymphs, the first in-field adult generation, and grape anthesis occurred concurrently in 2016 and 2017. Two in-field S. festinus generations were documented by peaks in sweep net sampling of vineyard groundcover in 2016, whereas only one generation was observed in 2017. There appears to be an inverse relationship between the number of S. festinus adults sampled on ground cover and the number of girdles in the grapevine canopy. Spissistilus festinus exhibited an aggregated distribution in the vineyard and a significant edge effect. Results from this study will contribute to the development of sampling and management guidelines and determine timing of control measures to reduce populations of S. festinus within vineyards to minimize the virus spread. aref1

^TRN: 1842079
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