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^: *http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/by/year
^: Kharel K.; Mason L.J.; Murdock L.L.; Baributsa D.
^: Efficacy of Hypoxia Against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Throughout Ontogeny [ Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) . ()]
^: Journal of Economic Entomology, 2019; Vol.112,N 3. - P. 1463-1468
^: 2019
^: Bibliogr.:p.1468
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^: . " " 2020'1 .91

aref2 Hermetic grain storage technology offers a viable chemical-free approach to control storage insects. However, there is limited knowledge on how hypoxia affects the survival of insect life stages during grain storage in hermetic bags. We exposed Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) eggs (2 d), young larvae (7 d), old larvae (21 d), pupae (28 d), and adults (2 d after emergence) to 2, 4, 8, and 20.9% oxygen levels for 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 d and assessed subsequent mortality. At 2% oxygen, complete mortality was achieved in 3 d for eggs and young larvae, 10 d for old larvae and pupae, and 15 d for adults. At 4% oxygen, 15 d were required to kill all eggs and old larvae but not the other insect life stages. At 8% oxygen after 15 d, complete mortality of any insect life stage was not observed; but even a relatively short exposure (1-3 d) caused significant developmental delays in immature insects. Our study shows potential utility of hermetic technology for control of T. castaneum, but internal oxygen should be maintained below 2% level for at least 15 d for complete control. Increased oxygen levels improved the development of all insect life stages leading to increased adult emergence. There is a need to explore exposure time required to achieve complete mortality of all insect life stage above the 2% oxygen level.

^TRN: 1843863
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