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^: *http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/by/year
^: Power N.A.; Ganjisaffar F.; Perring T.M.
^: Effect of Temperature on the Survival and Developmental Rate of Immature Ooencyrtus mirus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) [ Ooencyrtus mirus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). ]
^: Journal of Economic Entomology, 2020; Vol.113,N 4. - P. 1675-1684
^: 2020
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aref2 Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) is an invasive pest of cole crops in the southwestern United States. To find potential biocontrol agents of B. hilaris, three egg parasitoids were imported from Pakistan, including Ooencyrtus mirus, a recently described uniparental species. We investigated the effect of temperature on survival and developmental rate in O. mirus from egg to adult. At 14 and 16C, no adults emerged unless the immatures were transferred later to a warmer temperature. At constant 18C, a low percentage emerged, but again more emerged if the immatures were transferred to a warmer temperature. Survival ranged from 80 to 96% at 20-37C and did not differ significantly among these temperatures. No adults emerged at 38C. Regardless of the amount of time the parasitized eggs were held at 14 and 16C, the developmental times after returning the eggs to 26C were similar, suggesting a quiescence process rather than simply slow development. At higher temperatures, the developmental rate increased linearly from 18 to 36C and then declined at 37C. The Wang model provided the best fit of the data and estimated a lower developmental threshold at 13.0C, an optimal temperature at 35.6C, and an upper developmental threshold of 38.3C. The thermal constant for total immature development is 168.4 degree-days. The results show 36C to be the best temperature for rearing O. mirus, and that O. mirus-parasitized eggs can be stored at 14C for months without losing viability. These are crucial data to consider when mass rearing this biological control agent.

^TRN: 1908062
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