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^: *http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/by/year
^: Scheff D.S.; Campbell J.F.; Arthur F.H.; Kun Yan Zhu
^: Effects of Aerosol Insecticide Application Location on the Patterns of Residual Efficacy Against Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Larvae [ , ( + , + ) Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) . ()]
^: Journal of Economic Entomology, 2020; Vol.113,N 4. - P. 2007-2015
^: 2020
^: Bibliogr.:p.2015
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^: Aerosol insecticides are one tool that pest management professionals can utilize as a spatial treatment inside food facilities and storage warehouses. Methods of aerosol application can vary significantly and can affect the spatial pattern of efficacy achieved. We investigated how the location from which an aerosol insecticide is applied inside a mill influenced the spatial dispersal of the insecticide. Treatments were performed using two commercial formulations, pyrethrin + pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulator [IGR]) and pyrethrin + methoprene (IGR), applied at one of three static locations or a fourth application comprising of splitting the application among all three locations. Concrete arenas were placed out at different locations within the mill during applications. At 2, 4, and 6 wk post-aerosol application, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, confused flour beetle, larvae were added to the concrete arenas and monitored for development and efficacy was evaluated based on percent adult emergence and an efficacy index that ranged from 1 (low) to 21 (high). The spatial pattern of aerosol coverage varied between insecticide formulations and the aerosol application location. Areas of the mill near walls, corners, equipment, and farthest away from the application location had larger zones of low efficacy index values among all four application locations. This study illustrated that the aerosol insecticide formulation, application location, and delivery method all significantly influenced residual efficacies of the insecticides. To increase the overall spatial coverage and IGR efficacy, targeting these areas of a mill floor with the aerosol or additional intervention techniques would increase uniform coverages and overall effectiveness. aref1

^TRN: 1908495
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