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Russia (Russian Federation) - the state located in the Eastern part of the Europe and in Northern part of Asia.
The total area is 17098.2 thousand km2.
The population is 145.3 million person. (2002), among them urban population is 73.3 %.
Capital - Moscow.
Official language - Russian.
Currency - rouble.
National structure (according to population census of 2002): Russians - 79,8 %; Tatars - 3,8 %; Ukrainians - 2,0 %. On the territory of the Russian Federation live over 100 nationalities.

The form of political system is a democratic federative legal state with the republic form of government

The administrative and territorial division

The Russian Federation consists of 87 subjects of Federation: republics, territories, regions, autonomous regions and autonomous districts, federally significant cities Moscow and Saint-Petersburg. The subjects of the Federation are incorporated into 7 Federal districts.

Geographic position

The Most part of the European territory of the Russian Federation is located within the limits of East European plain. In the south - Northern slopes of Caucasus, in northwest - mountains Hibiny. To the east the territory of the Russian Federation extend up to Pacific.

Climate

Varies from marine climate in the farthest Northwest to sharply continental in Siberia and monsoon climate in the Far East. The average January temperatures are 0 to - 50ºC, July temperatures - -1 to 26ºC. Precipitations – 170 to 3200 mm a year.

The largest rivers: Lena, Irtish, Yenisey, Ob, Volga, Amur;

The largest lakes: Caspian (sea), Baikal, Ladoga, Onega.

Natural zones (from north to south): artic desert, tundra, forest tundra, forest, forest-steppe, semi-desert (Pricaspian lowland).

GDP per capita (2005) – 151.5 thousand rub.

The portion of agriculture in the gross domestic product in 2005 – 5.5%.

The sown areas structure (million ha, 2005)

Grain crops

43.8

Industrial crops

7.6

Potatoes and vegetable melon crops

4.0

Fodder crops

22.1

Total sown area

77.5

The total area of agricultural crops for the 2006 yield at every category of farm was 76.8 million ha (the preliminary reports of the Federal State Statistic Service).

The gross crop harvest (million ton, 2005)

Grain (after harvest treatment)

78.2

Sugar beet (factory)

21.4

Sunflower seeds

6.4

Potatoes

37.0

Vegetables

14.9

The main producers of grain and industrial crops – agricultural organizations, in 2005 their portion in grain production was 80.1%, sugar beet – 87.6%, sunflower – 72.4%.

The portion of peasant (farm) holdings and individual enterprisers in the production structure of these crops has increased.

The potatoes production is concentrated at the population’s subsidiary small holdings which grew 91.8% of the total harvest of this crop in 2005. Most of vegetables were also grown by the population – 80.9%.

The main cultivation areas; wheat - the Volga Region, Northern Caucasus, the Western Siberia, the Urals, and the Central Chernozem Area; flax – the Central District and Northwest; sunflower – Northern Caucasus, the Volga Region and the Central Chernozem Area; beet flower – the Central Chernozem Area and Northern Caucasus.

Cattle stock(million heads, as of 1 January, 2006)

Cattle

21.4

Cows

9.5

Pigs

13.3

Sheep and goats

17.3

In 2006 the subsidiary small holdings amounted to 45.9% of cattle stock, 43.8 % of pigs, 50.8% of sheep and goats.

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